Due to rationing during World War II , their prevalence declined, but their popularity has gone in and out of fashion from the s onwards. This was popular in the Edwardian era, as a feature of formalwear such as frock coats carried over to informalwear, but is now rare. The acid test of authentic tailoring standards is the wrinkle that comes from poor tailoring.
In and , some Mormon women participated in "Wear Pants to Church Day", in which they wore trousers to church instead of the customary dresses to encourage gender equality within The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. In , Turkey's parliament ended a ban on women lawmakers wearing trousers in its assembly. Also in , an old bylaw requiring women in Paris, France to ask permission from city authorities before "dressing as men", including wearing trousers with exceptions for those "holding a bicycle handlebar or the reins of a horse" was declared officially revoked by France's Women's Rights Minister, Najat Vallaud-Belkacem.
In , an Indian family court in Mumbai ruled that a husband objecting to his wife wearing a kurta and jeans and forcing her to wear a sari amounts to cruelty inflicted by the husband and can be a ground to seek divorce.
In , The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints announced that its female employees could wear "professional pantsuits and dress slacks" while at work; dresses and skirts had previously been required. Pleats just below the waistband on the front typify many styles of formal and casual trousers, including suit trousers and khakis.
There may be one, two, three, or no pleats, which may face either direction. When the pleats open towards the pockets they are called reverse pleats typical of most trousers today and when they open toward the fly they are known as forward pleats. Trouser-makers can finish the legs by hemming the bottom to prevent fraying.
A fly is a covering over an opening join concealing the mechanism, such as a zipper , velcro or buttons, used to join the opening. In trousers, this is most commonly an opening covering the groin , which makes the pants easier to put on or take off. The opening also allows men to urinate without lowering their trousers. Trousers have varied historically in whether or not they have a fly.
Originally, hose did not cover the area between the legs. This was instead covered by a doublet or by a codpiece. When breeches were worn, during the Regency period for example, they were fall-fronted or broad fall. Later, after trousers pantaloons were invented, the fly-front split fall emerged. Most flies now use a zipper, though button-fly pants continue to be available.
At present, most trousers are held up through the assistance of a belt which is passed through the belt loops on the waistband of the trousers. However, this was traditionally a style acceptable only for casual trousers and work trousers; suit trousers and formal trousers were suspended by the use of braces suspenders in American English attached to buttons located on the interior or exterior of the waistband.
Today, this remains the preferred method of trouser support amongst adherents of classical British tailoring. Many men claim this method is more effective and more comfortable because it requires no cinching of the waist or periodic adjustment.
In modern Western society, males customarily wear trousers and not skirts or dresses. There are exceptions, however, such as the ceremonial Scottish kilt and Greek fustanella , as well as robes or robe-like clothing such as the cassocks of clergy and the academic robes, both rarely worn today in daily use.
See also Men's skirts. Based on Deuteronomy in the Bible "The woman shall not wear that which pertaineth unto a man" , some groups, including the Amish, Hutterites, some Mennonites, some Baptists, a few Church of Christ groups, and most Orthodox Jews, believe that women should not wear trousers, but only skirts and dresses.
These groups do permit women to wear underpants as long as they are hidden. By contrast, many Muslim sects approve of pants as they are considered more modest than any skirt that is shorter than ankle length. However, some mosques require ankle length trousers for both Muslims and non-Muslims on the premises. Among certain groups, low-rise, baggy trousers exposing underwear became fashionable ; for example, among skaters and in s hip hop fashion. This fashion is called sagging or, alternatively, "busting slack.
Cut-offs are homemade shorts made by cutting the legs off trousers, usually after holes have been worn in fabric around the knees. This extends the useful life of the trousers. The remaining leg fabric may be hemmed or left to fray after being cut. In , a law requiring women in Paris, France to ask permission from city authorities before "dressing as men", including wearing trousers with exceptions for those "holding a bicycle handlebar or the reins of a horse" was declared officially revoked by France's Women's Rights Minister, Najat Vallaud-Belkacem.
Wearing jeans on this day, 22 April, has become an international symbol of protest. In Sudan, Article of the Memorandum to the Penal Code prohibits the wearing of "obscene outfits" in public.
This law has been used to arrest and prosecute women wearing trousers. Thirteen women including journalist Lubna al-Hussein were arrested in Khartoum in July for wearing trousers; ten of the women pleaded guilty and were flogged with ten lashes and fined Sudanese pounds apiece.
Lubna al-Hussein considers herself a good Muslim and asserts "Islam does not say whether a woman can wear trousers or not. I'm not afraid of being flogged. But it is insulting.
In May , in Louisiana , Democrat and state legislator Derrick Shepherd proposed a bill that would make it a crime to appear in public wearing trousers below the waist and thereby exposing one's skin or "intimate clothing". It is not clear whether, with the same coverage by the trousers, exposing underwear was considered worse than exposing bare skin, or whether the latter was already covered by another law. The law passed in the Virginia House of Delegates.
However, various criticisms to it arose. For example, newspaper columnists and radio talk show hosts consistently said that since most people that would be penalised under the law would be young African-American men, the law would thus be a form of racial discrimination.
Virginia's state senators voted against passing the law. In California , Government Code Section From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the clothing item. For the British film, see Trousers film. For undergarment, see Underpants. For the object in topology, see Pair of pants mathematics.
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. July Learn how and when to remove this template message. Retrieved 9 June Retrieved 6 December The Persian Army — BC. Archived from the original on 29 April Retrieved 21 January Thames and Hudson, , Retrieved 10 October Some rare jackets can have as few as two buttons, and during various periods, for instance the s and 70s, as many as eight were seen.
Six buttons are typical, with two to button; the last pair floats above the overlap. The three buttons down each side may in this case be in a straight line the 'keystone' layout or more commonly, the top pair is half as far apart again as each pair in the bottom square. A four-button double-breasted jacket usually buttons in a square. For example, if the buttons are too low, or the lapel roll too pronounced, the eyes are drawn down from the face, and the waist appears larger.
The jacket's lapels can be notched also called "stepped" , peaked "pointed" , shawl, or "trick" Mandarin and other unconventional styles. Each lapel style carries different connotations, and is worn with different cuts of suit. Notched lapels are the most common of the three are usually only found on single-breasted jackets and are the most informal style. They are distinguished by a 75 to 90 degree 'notch' at the point where the lapel meets the collar. Double-breasted jackets usually have peaked lapels, although peaked lapels are often found on single breasted jackets as well.
Shawl lapels are a style derived from the Victorian informal evening wear, and as such are not normally seen on suit jackets except for tuxedos or dinner suits. In the s, double-breasted suits with notched lapels were popular with power suits and the New Wave style. In the late s and s, a design considered very stylish was the single-breasted peaked lapel jacket. This has gone in and out of vogue periodically, being popular once again during the s, [ citation needed ] and is still a recognised alternative.
The ability to properly cut peak lapels on a single-breasted suit is one of the most challenging tailoring tasks, even for very experienced tailors. The width of the lapel is a varying aspect of suits, and has changed over the years.
The s and s featured exceptionally wide lapels, whereas during the late s and most of the s suits with very narrow lapels—often only about an inch wide—were in fashion. The s saw mid-size lapels with a low gorge the point on the jacket that forms the "notch" or "peak" between the collar and front lapel. Current mids trends are towards a narrower lapel and higher gorge.
Lapels also have a buttonhole , intended to hold a boutonnière , a decorative flower. These are now only commonly seen at more formal events. Usually double-breasted suits have one hole on each lapel with a flower just on the left , while single-breasted suits have just one on the left. Most jackets have a variety of inner pockets, and two main outer pockets, which are generally either patch pockets, flap pockets, or jetted "besom" pockets.
The flap pocket is standard for side pockets, and has an extra lined flap of matching fabric covering the top of the pocket. A jetted pocket is most formal, with a small strip of fabric taping the top and bottom of the slit for the pocket.
This style is most often on seen on formalwear , such as a dinner jacket. A breast pocket is usually found at the left side, where a pocket square or handkerchief can be displayed. In addition to the standard two outer pockets and breast pocket, some suits have a fourth, the ticket pocket, usually located just above the right pocket and roughly half as wide.
While this was originally exclusively a feature of country suits, used for conveniently storing a train ticket, it is now seen on some town suits.
Another country feature also worn sometimes in cities is a pair of hacking pockets, which are similar to normal ones, but slanted; this was originally designed to make the pockets easier to open on horseback while hacking. Suit jackets in all styles typically have three or four buttons on each cuff, which are often purely decorative the sleeve is usually sewn closed and cannot be unbuttoned to open. Five buttons are unusual and are a modern fashion innovation.
The number of buttons is primarily a function of the formality of the suit; a very casual summer sports jacket might traditionally s have had only one button, while tweed suits typically have three and city suits four. In the s, two buttons were seen on some city suits. Although the sleeve buttons usually cannot be undone, the stitching is such that it appears they could. Functional cuff buttons may be found on high-end or bespoke suits; this feature is called a surgeon's cuff and "working button holes" U.
Certainty in fitting sleeve length must be achieved, as once working button holes are cut, the sleeve length essentially cannot be altered further. A cuffed sleeve has an extra length of fabric folded back over the arm, or just some piping or stitching above the buttons to allude to the edge of a cuff. This was popular in the Edwardian era, as a feature of formalwear such as frock coats carried over to informalwear, but is now rare.
A vent is a slit in the bottom rear the "tail" of the jacket. Originally, vents were a sporting option, designed to make riding easier, so are traditional on hacking jackets, formal coats such as a morning coat , and, for practicality, overcoats. Today there are three styles of venting: Vents are convenient, particularly when using a pocket or sitting down, to improve the hang of the jacket,  so are now used on most jackets.
Ventless jackets are associated with Italian tailoring, while the double-vented style is typically British. Waistcoats called vests in American English were almost always worn with suits prior to the s. Due to rationing during World War II , their prevalence declined, but their popularity has gone in and out of fashion from the s onwards. A pocket watch on a chain, one end of which is inserted through a middle buttonhole, is often worn with a waistcoat; otherwise, since World War I when they came to prominence of military necessity, men have worn wristwatches, which may be worn with any suit except the full evening dress white tie.
Although many examples of waistcoats worn with a double-breasted jacket can be found from the s to the s, that would be unusual today one point of a double-breasted jacket being, it may be supposed, to eliminate the waistcoat. Traditionally, the bottom button of a waistcoat is left undone; like the vents in the rear of a jacket, this helps the body bend when sitting. Some waistcoats can have lapels, others do not.
Suit trousers are always made of the same material as the jacket. Even from the s to s, before the invention of sports jackets specifically to be worn with odd trousers, wearing a suit jacket with odd trousers was seen as an alternative to a full suit.
Trouser width has varied considerably throughout the decades. After , trousers began to be tapered in at the bottom half of the leg. Trousers remained wide at the top of the leg throughout the s.
By the s and s, a more slim look had become popular. In the s, suit makers offered a variety of styles of trousers, including flared, bell bottomed, wide-legged, and more traditional tapered trousers. In the s these styles disappeared in favour of tapered, slim-legged trousers. One variation in the design of trousers is the use or not of pleats. The most classic style of trouser is to have two pleats, usually forward, since this gives more comfort sitting and better hang standing.
The style originally descended from the exaggeratedly widened Oxford bags worn in the s in Oxford, which, though themselves short-lived, began a trend for fuller fronts. However, at various periods throughout the last century, flat fronted trousers with no pleats have been worn, and the swing in fashions has been marked enough that the more fashion-oriented ready-to-wear brands have not produced both types continuously. Turn-ups on the bottom of trousers, or cuffs, were initially popularised in the s by Edward VII ,  and were popular with suits throughout the s and s.
They have always been an informal option, being inappropriate on all formalwear. Other variations in trouser style include the rise of the trouser. This was very high in the early half of the 20th century, particularly with formalwear, with rises above the natural waist,  to allow the waistcoat covering the waistband to come down just below the narrowest point of the chest.
Though serving less purpose, this high height was duplicated in the daywear of the period. Since then, fashions have changed, and have rarely been that high again with styles returning more to low-rise trousers, even dropping down to have waistbands resting on the hips. Other changing aspects of the cut include the length, which determines the break, the bunching of fabric just above the shoe when the front seam is marginally longer than height to the shoe's top.
Some parts of the world, such as Europe, traditionally opt for shorter trousers with little or no break, while Americans often choose to wear a slight break. A final major distinction is made in whether the trousers take a belt or braces suspenders. While a belt was originally never worn with a suit, the forced wearing of belts during wartime years caused by restrictions on use of elastic caused by wartime shortages contributed to their rise in popularity, with braces now much less popular than belts.
When braces were common, the buttons for attaching them were placed on the outside of the waistband, because they would be covered by a waistcoat or cardigan, but now it is more frequent to button on the inside of the trouser. Trousers taking braces are rather different in cut at the waist, employing inches of extra girth and also height at the back. The split in the waistband at the back is in the fishtail shape.
Those who prefer braces assert that, because they hang from the shoulders, they always make the trousers fit and hang exactly as they should, while a belt may allow the trouser waist to slip down on the hips or below a protruding midsection, and requires constant repositioning; also, they allow, indeed work best with, a slightly looser waist which gives room for natural expansion when seated. Suit trousers, also known as dress pants in the US, are a style of trousers intended as formal or semi-formal wear.
They are often made of either wool or polyester  although many other synthetic and natural textiles are used and may be designed to be worn with a matching suit jacket. Suit trousers often have a crease in the front of each pant leg, and may have one or more pleats.
Suit trousers can be worn at many formal and semi-formal occasions combined with a shirt that has no tie and a more relaxed fashion, which can be considered smart casual dress. As an alternative to trousers, breeches or knickers in variations of English where this does not refer to underwear may be worn with informal suits, such as tweed.
These are shorter, descending to just below the knees, fastened closely at the top of the calf by a tab or button cuff. While once common, they are now typically only worn when engaged in traditional outdoor sports, such as shooting or golf. The length and design is closely related to the plus-fours and plus-sixes etc. They are usually designed to be worn with long socks meeting just below the knee, but riding breeches, worn with long boots such as top boots , are long enough to meet the boot and display no sock.
Accessories for suits include neckties , shoes , wristwatches and pocket watches , pocket squares , cufflinks , tie clips , tie tacks, tie bars, bow ties , lapel pins , and hats. Throughout the 20th and 21st centuries, Italy has been a leader in the design of men's suits. Typical fabrics include lightweight flannel, a wool and mohair blend, and linen or chino cloth for hot weather.
Elsewhere in the Mediterranean , suits are considered impractical without constant air conditioning. As a result, most non-conservative businesses, regardless of size or wealth, tend to use casual clothes even in formal meetings. Similarly, some Israeli branches of American firms tend to imitate their American counterparts' style of clothing.
In 20th century China, the Communist regime encouraged citizens to wear the Mao suit due to its egalitarian and utilitarian design. Although less common now than it once was, the Mao suit is still in widespread use in rural areas.
After independence of India , there was a backlash against Western fashions due to their association with the previous colonialist regime. Please turn it on so that you can experience the full capabilities of this site.
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